Wednesday, May 23, 2012

Japan's military

Japan is one of the country is losing the war in World War II, Japanese military has been highly regarded since World War II, ekpansionis in Asian countries such as Indonesia have proved the ability of military forces of japan, until the Japanese attack on the United States, which led to the defeat of Japan by the United States when U.S. dropping an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Naga Saki.
in this tilisan, will discuss a few things:
A. Japanese military leaders.
2. Of military force.
3.perkembangan Japanese military forces.
A. Japanese Military Leaders
Tadamichi Kuribayashi (栗林 忠 道, 7 July 1891-23 March 1945) was a Japanese officer in World War II's famous performance in the Battle of Iwo Jima. The task of maintaining a small island was given to him by General Hideki Tojo. In this battle he led approximately 20,000 troops with no air force and marine support 100,000 troops against the United States. Almost all the soldiers fighting to the death, only 296 of those who surrendered. He is reported to perform seppuku before the final seconds of the island fall into enemy hands.
Kuribayashi was born in Nagano prefecture and bloody samurai family of aristocrats. He is the head of a good family, his time he spent as much as possible with his family. In the course of his service, he is always communicating with them even remotely. He had been educated in Canada and served two years as deputy military attache in Washington DC Japan. During this period he frequently traveled in different regions of the United States. This trip was made to know more about this country and also gained respect from the Americans. According to modern warfare will be more dependent on industrial production, he had expressed this opinion to his colleagues that the war with the United will be in vain because they have a strong industry, this opinion is strongly opposed by most of the Japanese military. Although his views are quite controversial, he was one of the few officers who never got a chance audition with Emperor Hirohito. Aside from being a military leader, Kuribayashi was also a gifted literary works include poetry Aikoku Koshin Kyoku (Love Songs of the Homeland).
Kuribayashi had predicted two things in the face of the decisive battle of Iwo Jima it is somehow going to fall also into the hands of America and he and all his army will fall. But he's still as hard as possible to maintain the island to the U.S. to pay as dearly as possible for his efforts.
Kuribayashi had to recognize a pattern for an American invasion, so he did not focus on their landing on the beach. The strategy is to send its engineers to establish fortifications underground. On this small island they dig underground tunnels along the 5000 meter that are interconnected to one another like a spider web.
This tactic proved its worth. For eight months the Allies bombarded the island of the island, plus 72 days before landing in a row was bombed by warplanes, and three days earlier by a warship they spew thousands of tons of bullets Kuribayashi's defense remained solid. Confuse the bombers who want to set targets bombed and aircraft reconnaissance photos taken there was no point because the Japanese are great camouflage tactics.
Kuribayashi also good at encouraging his men, he instructed that every person should assume the position of defense as his own tomb, fight to the death and killing as many enemies as possible, the target is the enemy of every ten people before killing himself fall. He controls the army with an iron fist discipline and morale so that they are excellent.
March 16, 1945 regular defensive end, but Kuribayashi still alive, he just lost contact with most of his men. Major Horie who had become one of the staff Kuribayashi wrote: Lt. Gen. Kuribayashi led the battle in the light of a candle without a break and without sleep from day to day. The relationship between him and the outside world is still there on 15 March. We think he died on March 17. He was promoted to full general on that day. He said, "Defense enemy 200 or 300 yards from us, they attack us with the fire that had been expelled from the tank. They called for us to give up but we laughed and ignored it. "The news of his promotion Horie is delivered through a wire, but it is unknown whether Kuribayashi accept it.
March 23, 1945, the last wire reads, "We do not eat or drink for five days, but the spirit of Yamato, our fighting spirit is still high, we will fight until the last moment" and "To the officers on Chichi Jima, goodbye from Iwo ". He reported to commit seppuku in one place in underground tunnels, but his body was never found. Iwo Jima had just occupied America on March 26, 1945 at a price of 6800 killed and 17,000 wounded. While in Japan only 1,083 of the 22,000 people who survived and were captured.
America can not help but feel amazed at the tenacity of Iwo Jima, Kuribayashi defend to the death terakhir.Rasa amazed this has started since the first day of the battle and continue to grow until the end of the battle. Gen. Holland Smith, commander of U.S. forces in the battle of Iwo Jima said, "Of all our opponents in the Pacific, Kuribayashi was the most unparalleled." General Cattes ever personally called over the loudspeakers in order to funnel surrender Kuribayashi also praised the outstanding defense.
America has indeed been several times to deal with the Japanese commander of the clever and riveting them, but never praise them so highly as to General Kuribayashi. Kuribayashi was the one who should be afraid when they were alive but may be more dangerous after he died because he could become a war hero who must be worshiped if only the new nationalism in Japan is growing again. So do not be surprised if General Smith also said, "I hope Japan never had anyone else like him."
Mori Ōgai (森 鸥 外 or 森 鴎 外?) (February 17, 1862 - July 9, 1922) was a Japanese novelist, translator, critic, as well as military physicians, medical researchers, and a bureaucrat. His real name is Mori Rintarō (林太郎). After World War II, Mori name Soseki Natsume Ōgai aligned with the two major Japanese writers of the Meiji-Taisho era. Graduate of Tokyo Imperial University Faculty of Medicine.
After graduating as a doctor, Mori received a military doctor in the army corps, and learn to Germany for 4 years at the expense of the state. After coming back from Germany, Mori published a translation of an anthology of poetry and a novel titled Omokage Maihime (Dancing Girl). Improvisatoren (English: The Improvisatore: or, Life in Italy) by Hans Christian Andersen translated as Sokkyō Shijin. Mori was active as a writer from a magazine published Shigarami Soshi.
Once appointed as Inspector General of the Army Corps of Military Physicians, Mori stop writing for a while. But after the publication of Subaru magazine, he re-wrote and produced the works, such as: Sekusuarisu pm (from Latin: Vita Sexualis) and Gan (The Wild Geese).
Novel Okitsu Yagoemon no Isho written after the events conducted Junshi Maresuke Nogi. Since then, Mori wrote a novel with the theme of history, such as Abe Ichizoku, Takasebune, and biographies of historical figures Shibue Chūsai. As a bureaucrat, Mori Museum director of the Empire (now the Tokyo National Museum, Nara National Museum and Kyoto National Museum), as well as the first director of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts (now the Japan Art Academy).
Tsuwano born in the city, the province of Iwami (Shimane prefecture now) as the eldest son of Mori Shizuyasu (Shizuo Mori) and Mineko. His family worked for generations as a family physician in health care offices and pharmacies for Kamei clan who ruled the han Tsuwano. Since childhood, Mori was studying Analects of Confucius, Mencius philosophy, and Dutch. Sishu Wujing already read several times until the finish. Based on academic record at the time, Mori academic ability at age 9 years is estimated equivalent to 15-year-old child. [1]
In June 1872, Mori, who was 11 years old asked her father moved to Tokyo. His father moved to Tokyo as affected by the abolition of han. In Tokyo, Mori follow Shimbungakusha private schools in the district of Hongo. German language is taught in school that must be learned to prepare the country to attend medical school. Nishi Amane philosopher in the house that is still a relative, Mori often stay and eat because the house was boarded near the school. Education he received as a child makes Mori is fluent in German to be debated by German scientists. In addition, Mori in his works often use a quote from German, French, and Chinese classical.
In 1874, Mori received at the medical school preparation Dai Ichi Igakkō Daigaku my (now the Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo). At that time, school doctors in Japan are still being taught by doctors from Germany. Although the lectures and exams are all conducted in German, Mori graduated as a doctor in the month of July 1881 at the age of 19 years and 8 months. Later in the month of December 1881, Dr. Mori received the Military Corps of the Army, and began working at the Tokyo Army Hospital.
In 1884, Mori told the 23-year-old learn to Germany. Departure from Yokohama in August 1884 with the French ship, ship was sailing through the Suez Canal and arrived in Marseille. After continuing the journey by train, Mori arrived in Berlin in October. His first task is to examine the system of hygiene at the University of Leipzig. In March 1886, Mori moved to Munich and studied at the University of Munich by Max Josef von Pettenkofer lecturer. Later in the month of April 1887, Mori moved to Berlin and together Shibasaburō Kitasato University visited the Robert Koch in Berlin to study the system of hygiene. During their stay in Germany, Mori not only learn military medicine, but also steeped in literature and Western philosophy in his spare time. At the end of his duty (March 1888), Mori Guards infantry regiment stationed in the Kingdom of Prussia before arriving back in Japan in September the same year.
Mori started work as a lecturer in the School of Military Medicine of the Army in October 1888. Mori's return to Japan followed by the arrival of a German woman named Elise Wiegert. After staying with Mori in Japan about a month, Elise chose to go home to Germany. Elise is a love story with the inspiration for the novel Maihime (1890).
In the month of March 1889. Toshiko Mori married, eldest daughter of Admiral Akamatsu Noriyoshi he knew only through photographs alone. After that, the month of August 1889, led the group named Shinseisha Mori (The New Sound), which published translations of poetry, Omokage magazine Kokumin no Tomo. Meanwhile, Mori published a literary magazine Shigarami Soshi with her sister, Miki Takeji. Soshi Shigarami publishing made him start translating foreign literary works, like Faust (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe) and Improvisatoren (Hans Christian Andersen).
In the midst of the Japanese public remains uninformed about the Germans, Mori successively published three novels with a background story in Berlin. In January 1890, the magazine published a novel Maihime Kuni no Tomo, followed in August by Utakata no Ki (A Sad Tale) in a magazine Shigarami Soshi, and Fumizukai (The Courier) in January 1891. Particularly novel Maihime really surprised the Japanese public because it tells a Japanese romance with white foreigners. The third work is a source of polemics with Ningetsu Ishibashi. In September 1890, Mori and his wife divorced after the birth of the eldest son was named Mori Oto. Meanwhile, the polemic literature known as Botsurisō Ronso also occur between Mori and Tsubouchi Shōyō. A prolonged polemic after the principle of realism in magazine critic Tsubouchi Shigarami Soshi.
In August 1891, Mori received a doctorate in medical science. After that, Mori was appointed as head of the military medical school in November 1893. During the First Sino-Japanese War, Mori plunge fighting as the commissioner of military doctors in Manchuria from 1894 until 1895. On returning to Japan in September 1895, Mori continued post he held before the war. In 1896, along with Koda Rohan Mori and Saito Ryokuu Mesamashisō magazine founded as a continuation of the magazine Shigarami Soshi. The three of them wrote a series of literary criticism entitled Jogo San-nin, and magazines published Mesamashisō until 1902.
In June 1898, Mori was appointed as commander of the imperial guard of military doctors, as well as serves as the principal military doctor in Tokyo. Assignment did not last long, because Mori was ordered on duty to the city of Kokura, Kyushu as the Chief Military Physician Division XII Corps. There, remarried with Shige Mori, daughter Hiroomi Araki judge in January 1902. Before returning to Tokyo in March 1902, Mori wrote Kokura Nikki (Kokura Diary).
During the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1906), Mori plunged in war as commander of the military physician in the Division II Manchuria until the month of January 1906. On returning to Japan in January 1906, Mori returned to the post he left behind when the war broke out. During the First Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War, writing activities at all forgotten.
In October 1907, Mori was appointed as Inspector General of the Army Corps of Military Physicians (Rikugun gun-i dissimulation) which is the highest position for a military doctor. Position Director of the Bureau of Medical Affairs at the Department of the Army (Rikugun imukyoku-sho-cho) also dirangkapnya. About two years later, Mori active again after the publication of the magazine wrote Subaru, and always donate the writing on every issue. Novel that was published in the magazine Subaru, for example: Hannichi, Sekusuarisu pm, Niwatori, and Seinen. In addition, Mori also completed a play called Kamen and Shizuka.
In 1911, Mori published two novels at once, Gan and Kaijin. Five days after the incident that made Junshi Maresuke Nogi, Mori completed the writing of Okitsu Yagoemon no Isho. [2] Furthermore, Mori has written the history-themed novels, such as Abe Ichizoku, Sanshōdayū, Takasebune, and Shibue Chūsai.
Mori resigned from military service in April 1916. After that, in December 1917, Mori was appointed as curator of the Imperial Museum (now the Tokyo National Museum), while concurrently Zusho no Kami (the library) in the Department of Archives and Mausoleum, the Imperial Household Department. Furthermore, Mori was appointed the first director of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts (now the Japan Art Academy) in September 1919. One of his tasks as Zusho no Kami was to determine the name of the deceased for the deceased emperor. Mori did not really like the naming of the Meiji and Taisho era, and was invited as Zusho no Kami to specify the name of the next day. Health condition which continues to decline to appoint Masuzō Yoshida Mori to replace it. Yoshida later known as the proposer's name as a new era Showa era.
On July 9, 1922, Mori Ōgai, 60, died of kidney disease and tuberculosis. The last message he wrote on July 7, 1922 reads, "I Want to die as a man Iwami Rintarō Mori" (余 ハ 石見 人 森林 太郎 トシテ 死 セント 欲 ス Yo Mori wa Iwamijin Rintarō toshite shisen to hossu). Appropriate final words, titles and all sorts of attributes the honor to be dated. On his tombstone simply read "Mori Rintarō". His grave is called Kofuku-ji temple (now named ZENRIN-ji, in the city of Mitaka, Tokyo). Bones were reburied at the temple named Yōmeiji, Tsuwano city, Shimane Prefecture.
Takeichi Nishi (July 12, 1902 - March 22, 1945) was a Japanese army officer who last held the rank of lieutenant colonel after his death raised to colonel. He was a winner of gold medals in the Olympics in 1932 in a horse jumping championships. He was a tank commander in the battle on the island of Iwo Jima and he died on the island.
Takijiro Onishi (大西 泷 治郎, 2 June 1891-16 August 1945) is a Japanese admiral in World War II, known as the originator of the kamikaze attack.
At the beginning of the Pacific War, one-half of World War II, Onishi is the head of the development of naval aviation in the ministry of war material. He was also responsible for the technical problems in the Pearl Harbor attack in 1941 under the command of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto. Onishi was actually opposed the invasion plan which he believed would trigger large-scale war with an enemy more powerful and has enough resources to make Japan surrender unconditionally.
October 1944, Onishi became commander of the First Air Fleet in the northern Philippines. Although his name is often associated with tactical planning suicide plane attacks against Allied aircraft carriers, the project has actually been there before he took office and Onishi itself was not approved in this way. Following the fall of the Mariana Islands, Onishi changed his mind and ordered the attack that way. This plan is to use the airplanes Mitsubishi A6M Zero is filled with a bomb weighing 250 kg, these planes would swoop down and crash into Allied ships and then exploded with the pilot.
In a meeting at the Air Field Mabacalat (Clark Air Base) near Manila, he gathered his staff officers at the airport and said in a voice touched by that destiny lies in the hands of Dai Nippon pilots are men. Here he proposed an operation that was incredible daring. He said, "I think there is no other way to defend the Philippines in addition to installing 250 kg bombs on planes and crashed to zero U.S. aircraft carrier, is to hold them for a week"
This proposal received the Japanese officers in the tense atmosphere. After Onishi finished with his speech, Commander Tamai Asaichi, the highest officer in Magracut asked for time to think and exchange ideas with the commanders skuadronnya. But in their eyes it was obvious that they are willing to fall for the Tenno Heika, for the emperor, for his country. Even a named Yukio Seki lieutenant who had just married before going to war is also willing to perform the sacred mission to defend this country.
Unfortunately this kamikaze attack Japan only began after the Allied shipbuilding capacity grew rapidly. Desperate attempts they were finally in vain because not long after Japan surrendered unconditionally. August 16, 1645 after the Japanese surrender, Onishi commit seppuku at his headquarters. He killed himself by tearing his stomach and without the help kaishakunin (assistant seppuku) before she died 15 hours later. In his farewell letter he apologized to approximately 4000 pilots who had been sent as a suicide pilot, he also requested that the younger generation who survived the kamikaze spirit of war in order to re-build their country and world peace and never forget the pride of the Japanese people. He also expressed by his death he was responsible for the kamikaze pilots and their families.
Hideki Tojo (东 条 英 机 Tojo Hideki) (December 30 1884-23 December 1948) is a Japanese general and the 40th Japanese PM (October 18 1941-22 July 1944). Tojo was a member clicks a push Japanese troops in the war in the late 1930s. As Minister of War in 1940 was instrumental in the leadership of Japan in Axis Aligned with Nazi Germany and Italy. Among the government's decision is to permit approval in biological experiments on prisoners of war.
Start of 1941, Tojo was prime minister and control the entire Japanese military, which so dominated Japan at that time that he really is the nation's dictator. He was replaced in 1944 following the defeat of the Japanese series. After the war, he shot himself in the chest to kill himself but failed.Tojo in custodyTojo in custody
He was later tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East as a war criminal. He was convicted on charges of 1 (the war of aggression, and wars in violation of international law), charges 27 (holding unprovoked war against China), charges 29 (aggressive war against the U.S.), charges 31 (conduct an aggressive war against the British Commonwealth), charges of 32 (entered into an aggressive war against the Dutch), charges 33 (conduct an aggressive war against France (Indochina)), and charges 54 (ordering, confirming, and allowing the inhumane treatment of war criminals and others). He was sentenced to death on 12 November 1948, and received suspended sentences.
Because a criminal act under his authority, Tojo is considered responsible for killing nearly 4 million Chinese people.
Hisaichi Terauchi (Terauchi Hisaichi 寺内 寿 一) (born August 8, 1879, died June 12, 1946) was a Field Marshal (Field Marshall) Imperial Japanese Army and Commander of the Southern Expeditionary Army Group during World War II.
He is the eldest son of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake, was born in Yamaguchi prefecture. After graduation from the Imperial Japanese Military Academy in 1900, he joined the Army and was commissioned in the Russo-Japanese War. After the war, Terauchi became military attache in Germany and worked as a lecturer at the Military Academy. Marshal Terauchi became famous after he led the Japanese Navy defeated the Russian Navy in 1905. Year and the battle is considered the starting point of the national revival of Asia (yellow race) on the dominance of European (white race). In various parts of Asia, the victory was greeted with great fanfare Marshal Terauchi.
In 1919, he was awarded the title hakushaku (count) and rose to the rank of colonel. Back was promoted to major general in 1924 and was assigned to lead the Chosen Army in Korea in 1927. After becoming a lieutenant general in 1929, he was made leader of the Division-5, and then transferred to the 4th Division in 1932. In 1934, he became army chief in Taiwan.
Month of October 1935, he was promoted to general (full) and is involved in factional politics Kodoha in Japan. After the events of February 26 Incident, he is a figure of the choice of the Army who was appointed Minister of War (War Minister) in 1936, the government of Prime Minister Koki Hirota, a further sharpen the conflict between military camps and civilian camps in the Diet.
Immediately following the Second Sino-Japanese War, he was again sent to the battlefield as a commander of the North China Area Army. In 1938, he was awarded honors Order of the Rising Sun first class and on 6 November 1941 was appointed as commander of the Expeditionary Army Group South (Southern Expeditionary Army Group). Then he was with Admiral Yamamoto Isoroku war plan for the Pacific War.
After leading the invasion of Southeast Asia in 1941-1942, he was based in Singapore and was promoted to Field Marshal (higher than the generals). Subsequently he moved to the Philippines in May 1944. When the Allies threaten the Philippines, he left for Saigon, in French Indochina (now Vietnam). Hearing loss of Burma from the Japanese, he suffered a stroke on May 10, 1945. On 12 September 1945, Gen. Seishiro Itagaki, representing Terauchi, surrendered to the Allies in Singapore. Terauchi himself surrendered to Lord Mountbatten on 30 September 1945 and died as a prisoner of war in Malaya after the war.
Heihachiro Togo (东 郷 平 八郎 Heihachiro Togo, December 22, 1847 - May 5, 1934) was a Japanese admiral and one of the greatest naval heroes of Japan. He was born as the son of a samurai clan of Kagoshima, which inherited the blood of warriors.
Shortly after Japan's large-scale restoration in the Meiji Restoration, Togo went to Britain to study at the Royal Navy Education Center. For seven years, from 1871 until 1879, he studied modern sea warfare tactics. Presumably during which he investigated the presence and capabilities of the Navy European countries.
Franco-Chinese War (1884-1885)
After returning to the Imperial Japanese Navy, Togo received several assignments, first as captain of Daini Teibo and then Amagi. During the Franco-Chinese War (1884-1885), Togo, on the Amagi, closely observing the action of the French fleet under Admiral Courbert.
Togo also observed a battle ground between the French and Chinese forces on Formosa (Taiwan), under the guidance of Joffre, who is the "Commander-in-Chief" in the future French troops during World War I.
Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)
In 1894, at the beginning of the Sino-Japanese War, Togo, as the captain of the ship cruiser Naniwa, sank Kowshing, a British transport ship working for the Chinese navy. A report on the incident sent by Suematsu Kencho to Mutsu Munemitsu.
The incident nearly caused a diplomatic conflict between Japan and Britain, but was eventually regarded Britain as jurors in accordance with international law, making Togo famous overnight because of their versatility to face the problem that worries and regulations involving foreign countries.
In 1903, the Navy Minister Yamamoto Gonnohyoe commissioned him as head of the Combined Fleet Admiral of the Imperial Japanese Navy. This shocked many people, including Emperor Meiji who asked Yamamoto why Togo commissioned. Yamamoto said, "because Togo is one of the lucky ones."
In the Russo-Japanese War Togo defeated the Russian fleet at Port Arthur in 1904 and destroyed the Russian Baltic Fleet in the Battle of Tsushima in 1905. This historic battle broke Russian strength in East Asia.
2. military force
military force is a tuntan that is needed by a country to maintain and guarantee the sovereignty of its territory, whether air, sea and land, so the demand to have an armed force or military force is the main thing, as described by Ny.Conny in the book "Posture Ideal TNI "confirms that kekauatan beresnjata is having an important role in a sovereign state, so that armed forces should continue to be organized in order to remain a prioraitas in maintaining the sovereignty of a country.
3. Japanese military forces.
as we all know that Japan is an advanced Industrial countries, which later led Japan into a country with economic progress in the field, so far, post-World War II Japan only in the U.S. Back Up (allies), but in Japan in 2002 and then begin to look to the role important a value of defense and security, so that any Japanese decision to develop its armed forces, if we milirik the frightening specter of China by the U.S., there is a case pentinng the economic strength that makes China able to budget for military spending is so high that economic strength and cinapun military increased, so did the Japanese view that has been prepared with high-tech industry and the economy has no doubt established that the Japanese may have strong armed forces and move forward.

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